Serological pattern consistent with infection with type I Toxoplasma gondii in mothers and risk of psychosis among adult offspring
Xiao, J.C., Buka, S. L., Cannon, T.D., Suzuki, Y., Viscidi, R.P., Torrey, E. F., Yolken, R. H.
Microbes and Infection 2009; 11: 1011-1018.
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Previous studies have shown that maternal antibodies to Toxoplasma measured during pregnancy are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia and other psychoses in adult offspring Recently. it has been recognized that different genotypes of Toxoplasma have distinct neuropathogenic potential. The objective of this study was to investigate whether parasite genotype is a contributing factor to disease risk. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that use., polymorphic polypeptides specific to the three clonal parasite lineages and derived from three dense granule antigens. GRA5, GRA6 and GRA7. We used this assay to measure type-specific antibodies in the sera from 219 pregnant women whose children developed schizophrenia and affective psychotic illnesses in adult life, and 618 matched unaffected control mothers from three cohorts of the Collaborative Perinatal Project. We found that the offspring of mothers with a serological pattern consistent with Toxoplasma type I infection were at significantly increased risk for the development of psychoses as compared with the matched unaffected control mothers (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.08-3.46; p = 0.03). The risk was particularly elevated for affective psychoses (OR = 5.24, 95% CI = 1.67-16 5; p = 0 005). In contrast, we did not find an association between maternal antibodies to other genotypes and risk of psychoses in the offspring These findings suggest in influence of the parasite genotype on increased risk of psychosis and provide further support for a substantive role of Toxoplasma in the etiology of psychosis. (C) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS All rights reserved