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Previous studies suggested a complex association between Toxoplasma gondii (TG) infection and host lipid metabolism Both TG infection and metabolic disturbances are very common in patients with schizophrenia, but this relationship is not clear. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the association between TG seropositivity, serum lipid levels, body mass index (BMI) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in 210 male inpatients with schizophrenia. Results: In our sample of schizophrenia patients, with the mean age of 43.90 +/- 12.70 years, the rate of TG seropositivity was 52.38% and the prevalence of MetS was 17%. Patients with the TG antibodies had lower serum triglyceride levels and body weight compared to TG seronegative patients, despite having more frequently received antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine risperidone and quetiapine), which are well known to induce weight gain and metabolic abnormalities. However, the only significant change in metabolic parameters, observed in TG seropositive patients with schizophrenia, was decreased serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio. No associations were observed between TG seropositivity and serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and glucose levels, waist circumference, BMI and the rate of MetS. Conclusion: This is the first report of the association between TG infection and decreased serum triglyceride to HDL-C ratio in a sample of carefully selected men with chronic schizophrenia.