Sero-prevalence of anti- Toxoplasma gondii antibodies among patients with neuropsychiatric disorders: Epilepsy and depression
Abd El-Aal, N. F., Saber, M., Fawzy, N., Ashour, W. R.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology 2016; 46: 729-736
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Toxoplasma gondii infection is concerned to have an association with epilepsy and depression either as a cause or a potential risk factor for their occurrence. Nevertheless, there has been long-standing interest in investigating this possible association, the evidence for such relationship is yet not conclusive. The current study correlated between T. gondii infection and Neuropsychiatric disorders: epilepsy and depression, through serological valuation of anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies. In the current study, 112 patients suffered from epilepsy (72 cryptogenic and 40 non-cryptogenic), 118 had depression and 60 healthy volunteers that had no history of any neuropsychiatric disorders in their first degree relatives were enrolled. Full history taking, complete physical examination, cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), scalp electroencephalography (EEG), a structured questionnaire and T. gondii specific IgG antibody ELISA were performed to all groups. The results showed that the anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies were detected among cases with cryptogenic epilepsy 34.7% (25 out of 72 cases), non-cryptogenic epilepsy 2.5% (1 out of 40) and depression 20.3% (24 out of 118) groups compared to healthy. control group (11.7%). There were significant associations between T. gondii seropositivity of epilepsy and depression groups in age, residence, contact with pets and social class compared to control healthy group (p<0.05). Youth and adults had the highest sero-T. gondii infection especially male in rural areas with low social class.