The relation of secondary sex ratio and miscarriage history with Toxoplasma gondii infection
Shojaee, S.,Teimouri, A., Keshavarz, H., Azami, S. J., Nouri, S.
Bmc Infectious Diseases 2018; 18: 307
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Background: Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite with worldwide distribution, infecting a broad-range of humans and warm-blooded animals. In the current study, role of this parasite on secondary sex ratio and risk of miscarriage was investigated. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 850 cord blood samples were collected in Tehran, Iran, 2014-2015. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess anti-Toxoplasma IgG in samples. Information such as sex of the neonates and age, number of previous pregnancies and history of miscarriage of the mothers were recorded in questionnaires. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the possible relationship between the latent toxoplasmosis and the highlighted parameters. Results: Logistic regression analysis showed that the odds of having a male neonate in seropositive women is nearly 64% higher than that in seronegative women (OR = 1.64, CI95 = 1.16-2.33, P = 0.005). The odds ratio of having male neonate increased to 2.10 (CI95 = 1.24-3.57, P = 0.006) in high-titer seropositive women, compared to that in seronegative control group. The odds of having a miscarriage history was approximately two and a half times greater in seropositive women than in seronegative ones (OR = 2.45, CI95 = 1.56-3.87, P < 0.001). The odds ratio of having miscarriage increased to 2.76 (CI95 = 1.61-4.73, P < <.001) in low-titer seropositive women, compared to that in seronegative control group. Conclusion: Results of the current study have shown that T. gondii infection affects secondary sex ratio in human offspring and can be addressed as one of the major miscarriage causes in women.