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Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by the Toxoplasmagondii parasite. The parasite is intracellular and can result in severe complications leading to death in immuno-deficient patients in particular. Diabetes is an important factor that increases susceptibility and risk of various infections in the host. Objectives: The present study focused on the serologic detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in diabetic patients. Materials and Methods: Through a case-control study, overall 184 serum samples including 91 from diabetic cases and 93 from healthy non-diabetic controls were investigated. Cases and controls were matched for age and gender. Serum samples were tested for sugar by an enzymatic method, and IgG antibodies were tested against Toxoplasma gondii by ELISA method. Results: The prevalence of IgG antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in diabetic patients and healthy controls were 60.43% and 38% respectively. Risk of toxoplasmosis infection in diabetic patients with was two folds higher than healthy controls (RR = 2.21, 95% CI; 1.6 - 3.7, P = 0.001). Conclusions: Diabetes may be caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Presence of T. gondii in the pancreas at the same time could directly undermines the pancreas cells. When beta cells are destroyed, insulin secretion would then be affected. Probably the destruction of T. gondii affects nervous system and damages pancreatic cells leading to increased risk of diabetes.