del Castillo, J. D. D.,
Carrillo-Avila, J. A.,
Cervilla, J. A.,
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015;11: 843-852
In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention.
Toxoplasma infection in pregnancy is usually treated with long-term administration of the macrolide spiramycin to prevent fetal malformations. We had empirically observed that treated patients seldom developed pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), a common and severe disorder of pregnancy whose aetiology and pathogenesis are still debated. Some clinical and experimental data suggest that infection could play a role in its development.
To test this hypothesis, we studied a cohort of 417 pregnant women treated with spiramycin because of seroconversion for Toxoplasma gondii and 353 low-risk women who did not take any antibiotic during pregnancy. PIH was defined as blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg on two or more occasions, occurring after 20 weeks of gestational age.
Seventeen (5.2%) women in the control group developed PIH compared with two (0.5%) in the case group. The odds of developing the disease were significantly lower in the treated subjects (odds ratio = 0.092, 95% confidence interval 0.021, 0.399; P < 0.001).
Our results suggest that antibiotic treatment during pregnancy can reduce the incidence of PIH, thus opening new perspectives in its prevention and therapy.