Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations
Weiss, L..M., Dubey, J.P.
International Journal for Parasitology 2009; 39 :1217-1258
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t has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexam parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janku. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations