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We evaluated the possible association of seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii and certain risk factors for T. gondii infection with the scholastic development of children. One hundred children aged 613 years attending the Hospital Municipal de Maring Parana, Brazil, participated in the study. Serologic tests for IgG and IgM anti-T. gondii (indirect immunofluorescence (capture ELISA) were performed. The Scholastic Performance Test (SPT) for writing, mathematics and reading was applied to each child, and the result was classified as high, average or poor. The guardian of each child responded to a questionnaire about certain aspects of the childs living situation and diet. The prevalence of seropositivity for T. gondii was 8. An association between seropositivity for T. gondii and scholastic development in the mathematics subtest and also consumption of fresh cheese were observed. Children with exposed soil, sand or grass lawn in their peridomicile were 9.116 times more likely to be infected by T. gondii. The findings showed the need to test school-age children for this parasite, educate families with T. gondii-positive children, provide training to educators, monitor recreation areas, and raise awareness of the need for care in handling food.