del Castillo, J. D. D.,
Carrillo-Avila, J. A.,
Cervilla, J. A.,
Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 2015;11: 843-852
In the present study we have performed both a meta-analysis and an analytical study exploring the presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae, herpes simplex virus type 1, human herpes virus 6, and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in a sample of 143 schizophrenic patients and 143 control subjects. The meta-analysis was performed on papers published up to April 2014. The presence of serum immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin A was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. The detection of microbial DNA in total peripheral blood was performed by nested polymerase chain reaction. The meta-analysis showed that: 1) C. pneumoniae DNA in blood and brain are more common in schizophrenic patients; 2) there is association with parasitism by T. gondii, despite the existence of publication bias; and 3) herpes viruses were not more common in schizophrenic patients. In our sample only anti-Toxoplasma immunoglobulin G was more prevalent and may be a risk factor related to schizophrenia, with potential value for prevention.
The intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is an exceptionally successful food and waterborne parasite that infects approximately 1 billion people worldwide. Genotyping of T. gondii isolates from all continents revealed a complex population structure. Recent research supports the notion that T. gondii genotype may be associated with disease severity. Here, we (1) discuss molecular and serological approaches for designation of T. gondii strain type, (2) overview the literatures on the association of T. gondii strain type and the outcome of human disease and (3) explore possible mechanisms underlying these strain-specific pathology and severity of human toxoplasmosis. Although no final conclusions can be drawn, it is clear that virulent strains (e.g. strains containing type I or atypical alleles) are significantly more often associated with increased frequency and severity of human toxoplasmosis. The significance of highly virulent strains can cause severe diseases in immunocompetent patients and might implicated in brain disorders such as schizophrenia should led to reconsideration of toxoplasmosis. Further studies that combine parasite strain typing and human factor analysis (e.g. immune status and genetic background) are required for better understanding of human susceptibility or resistance to toxoplasmosis.
t has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexam parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janku. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations
Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Epstein-Barr virus (EMV), cytomegalovirus (CW), and human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6) are viruses capable of establishing latency. All of these infect the CNS and have been detected in human postmortem brains. Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan organism which can reactivate in the brains of previously infected immunocompromised individuals. To screen for the presence of herpesviruses and T gondii in postmortem orbital frontal brain samples from patients with schizophrenia, affective disorders, and controls, we used nested-polymerase chain reaction (n-PCR)/sequencing. We identified HGV-6B sequences in 2/51 postmortem brain samples but no sequences from other herpesviruses, We did not detect sequences of T gondii in the postmortem brains. Additional studies including ones directed at the sensitive detection of viral nucleic acids in multiple brain regions should be directed at confirming or excluding a role for viruses and protozoa in the etiology of these disorders, (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.