Influence of Toxoplasma gondii infection on symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome: A cross-sectional study.
Alvarado-Esquivel, C., Sanchez-Anguiano, L. F., Hernandez-Tinoco, J., Perez-Alamos, A. R., Rico-Almochantaf, Y. D., Estrada-Martinez, S., Vaquera-Enriquez, R., Diaz-Herrera, A., Ramos-Nevarez, A., Sandoval-Carrillo, A. A., Salas-Pacheco, J. M., Cerrillo-Soto, S. M., Antuna-Salcido, E. I., Liesenfeld, O., Guido-Arreola, C. A.
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology 2016; 6: 298-305
Click for abstract
Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in brain may cause some symptoms that resemble those in women with premenstrual syndrome. To determine the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome, we examined 489 women aged 30-40 years old. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) and T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 38 (7.8%) of the women studied. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 IgG seropositive women. Logistic regression showed two variables associated with seropositivity to T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37-27.85; P = 0.01) and weight gain (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.37-6.07; P = 0.005), and two variables associated with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of IgG against T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (OR = 7.40; 95% CI: 1.79-30.46; P = 0.006) and abdominal inflammation (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.13-10.10; P = 0.02). Positivity to EIA IgG and PCR was positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with joint pain by bivariate analysis. Our study for the first time reveals a potential association of T. gondii infection with clinical manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.