Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii among pregnant women in Adwa district, northern northern Ethiopia
Teweldemedhin, M., Gebremichael, A., Geberkirstos, G., Hadush, H., Gebrewahid, T., Asgedom, S. W., Gidey, B., Asres, N., Gebreyesus, H.
BMC Infectious Diseases 2019, 19
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Background: Toxoplasma gondii infection is a great health concern to pregnant women and the developing fetus. The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii and its associated factors in Adwa district. Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from January to June 2018 in Adwa district. Structured, a pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect the demographic and risk factor related data. Serum sample, collected from each of the study subjects was tested for IgG and IgM anti T.godii specific antibodies using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. A bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was applied to show association between the dependent and independent variables considering P < 0.05 and the 95% confidence interval. Result: Out of the 360, 128 (35.6%) pregnant women were found to be positive for antibodies specific to T. gondii. Furthermore, 117 (32.5%) women were positive only for IgG, and 11 (3.1%) were positive both for IgM and IgG antibodies. Age, educational level, habit of hand washing after contact with garden soil or domestic animals, presence of domestic cat, history of contact with domestic dog and consumption of raw vegetables were significantly associated with T. gondii. Conclusion: The seroprevalence of T. gondii among pregnant women in the study area is low compared to the other regions of Ethiopia, and within the range of the seroprevalences in the central and East Africa region. However, efforts should be done to create awareness on the potential risk factors of the parasite in the community.