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We report here a case of polymyositis and toxoplasmosis, and review the previous examples of this association. We suggest that in most cases this relationship is due to reactivation of latent infection in an immunocompromised host. Gross immunological aberrations underline the pathogenesis of polymyositis and these predispose the patient to the development of toxoplasmosis. Anti-protozoal therapy is necessary and produces some clinical benefit, but it does not cure the polymyositis.