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The clinical sequelae of acute and congenital toxoplasmosis are well established, but that of chronic toxoplasma infection remains uncertain. In rodents, chronic toxoplasma infection is associated with altered behaviour leading to an enhanced risk of feline predation and a putative selective advantage to the parasite. It is proposed that neurotropic cysts of toxoplasma exert an effect on animal behaviour, either directly or via the release of metabolic products. Long-standing toxoplasma infection in humans has been linked to cerebral tumour formation and personality shift. In view of the vast population with chronic toxoplasma infection, further studies of the clinical sequelae of this condition are required.